Bachelor of Agriculture and Animal Science 

Nugaal University has made continues progress in terms of number of faculties launched in recent years due to the educational gap in the region. One of the most recent programs that the University started was faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science. In particular, the faculty has introduced Bachelor of Agriculture and Animal Science for the first time in the history of the region.

This program was based on surveys conducted by Nugaal University in several years (2009, 2010, &2011) that aimed to learn more about the ground situation of the society. According to the surveys’ findings, 85% among the sample is pastoralists, whereas 15% are agrarian. In addition, the survey teams observed localities that are appropriate for farming such as Nugaal Valley, where inhabitants are lacking adequate farming techniques.

Furthermore, Nugaal University arranged academic discussion regarding the findings of the surveys. That discussion has brought about the establishment of the faculty which was given priority to two fields, mainly Crop and Livestock Production.

The Bachelor of Science in Agriculture and Animal Science would transform Sool community from Pastoralists to Agro-Pastoralists by producing professionals that are capable and competent in nature. The reason behind it is that the pastoralist society is more vulnerable than Agro-pastoralists in seasonal droughts while food security deliberately considered.  In the end, the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture had officially launched on Sept. 2012.


  1. The vision of the faculty is to be center of excellence in knowledge such as teaching, action, practical oriented and research center to ensure contribution of food security for the society through increased both crop and animal production in the region and country as whole, while Producing highly professional students who will handle food insecurity and environmental degradation in the country.


The program of agriculture and animal science is driven by a sense of responsibility to the development of communities at the local, regional and national level. For this consideration of production both plants and animal



  1. To train and produce qualified students who are more creative and innovative oriented personnel in Agriculture and animal science.
  2. To give extension training to farmers about fertility of soil, pests, diseases and weed management and livestock raising approaches
  3. To provide improved/ certified seed for farmers
  4. To provide technical consultancy and advisory services on Agriculture, livestock management and conservation of natural resource  including land and water to all agriculture and livestock development institutions 

Learning outcomes:-

  1. Disciplinary Literacy – Students will demonstrate knowledge, integrative skills and technical competences in multiple areas of agricultural sciences, emerging technologies in the field, and their applications.
  2. Critical thinking/Problem solving skills – Students will apply critical thinking skills in distinguishing facts and applying scientific principles in formulating, analyzing and solving problems, and interpreting results.
  3. Effective communication – Students will demonstrate effective use of discipline appropriate oral and written communication skills, in diverse and team environments.
  4. Students will demonstrate knowledge of the interconnectivity and interdependency of individuals, groups, systems and activities, and their implications in the dynamic global food and agricultural community
  5. Civic responsibility and Ethical/Professional Behavior – Students will demonstrate ethical practices

Create Employment opportunities

  • Construction of irrigation schemes, drainage system for irrigation chanlle –agriculture engineering
  • Nurseries set up technicians
  • Agriculture extension officers
  • Horticulturists
  • Soil chemistry specialists and soil laboratory technicians
  • Metrology for forecasting of weather condition.
  • Farm machinery – farm mechanization
  • Vocational training schools and universities teachers
  • Agronomists who deals soil and crop production
  • Entomologists and pathologists who deal crop pests and diseases
  • Agro-vet farm input supplies ( vet drugs, seeds, fertilizers , agro-chemicals , agriculture materials and equipment
  • Dairy technology specialists
  • Beekeeping production
  • Poultry production


The candidates must:

  • Complete high school education successfully with average score of at least “C”
  • Meet the other set criteria of the Nugaal University to join the program
  • Be fully sponsored by Private, Governmental or Nongovernmental organizations or Self
  • Able to pass the entrance exam set by the University
  • Have full interest to serve his/her community


Teaching methods are student centered approach and include:

  • Lecture
  • Seminars/tutorials
  • Practical attachments
  • Audio visuals such as videos, pictures, diagrams and models
  • Case studies
  • Agricultural extension participation
  • Field demonstration
  • Discussion


Course Description: this course intends to offer introductory concepts and methods of horticulture production by emphasizing environment of horticulture, fruit, and vegetable and ornamental plant productions. And in the end, the course provides horticulture management knowledge with detailed practices.


Course Description: this course deals with the basic understanding of various crop products by emphasizing their natural behavior in production levels. It also enables students to gain in depth knowledge regarding their approaches, methods/techniques and processes of crop production management. In particular, agronomical practices and disease control.


Course Description:  Technical writing is the presentation of information that help the reader solve a particular problem. Thus every profession has its own special specialized forms of writing. Police officers lawyers and social workers all write specialized reports and someone has to learn perform, critique and teach each one . Every major company, site of work hire staff members to design, administer, and analyze surveys and to write the secret reports that get leaked to reporters. Somebody has to design tax forms and the accompanying instructions, books, assembly instructions for many imponderable documents and scripts for product demonstrations or multimedia presentations. One first rule of technical writing is “known your audience.’’  Writers who know their audience well are in a position to suggest and implement solutions to problems that nobody else indentifies. Whenever one group of people has specialized knowledge that another group does not share, the technical writers serve as a go between. But technical writers are not just translators accepting wisdom from experts and passing it on unquestionably. They also are in the business of generating truth, by choosing what get written, and for whom, with the full knowledge that later readers will depend on the accuracy of what has been written.

            In that case the technical writing program is designed for anyone who wishes to develop their technical writing abilities to a professional level. Anybody who gets involved in this course will learn far about writing methods, audience, consideration, style drafting and revision techniques, how to work in a collaborative environment and more. A variety of writing and formats are studied in this course, including letters (ALL KINDS), Memos, proposals, short reports and summaries e.t.c.

          Finally it’s sure that technical writing program gives one the writing expertise that he/she needs to get noticed.



Course Description:  Environmental problems and their range of possible solutions are increasingly well-publicized and discussed around the world. However, what is considered a solution is based on how one diagnoses the “problem.”  Understanding root causes of environmental problems is very complex.  It is complex for a variety of reasons.  First, many assume that “environmental” problems only have environmental causes. But as we will examine they often involve social processes which may not be immediately associated with environmental conditions.  Second, the intersection of social and environmental forces is likely to be invisible from where their point of impact or physical outcome appears at a particular point in time. Third, there are different social forces that can potentially be at play notably cultural, economic and political; and they operate across (multiple) time and space scales.  Hence historical analysis is necessary as well as consideration of future conditions and impacts.  Lastly, even when social forces are included in understanding environmental conditions, people tend to focus on one (familiar) force or theory and disregard those which may challenge deeply held understandings as well as necessitate attention to politics and conflict.



Course Description: The following is a brief outline of the units to be studied in this course as well as the expectations and evaluation procedures.  Pre-Calculus is a fast paced academic course intended for students who will possibly enroll in post-secondary programs that require Pre-Calculus.  Students who take Pre-Calculus are expected to have a strong foundation of math skills from Pre-Calculus




MTH 1208: Calculus     

Course Description: This course helps the student develop different techniques of analyzing and decision making to solve existing problems in business management.  Several methods are introduced in applying mathematics to solve management problems quantitatively. The determination of the most efficient use of limited resources in maximizing some measure of benefits could be solved using the graphical method or algebraic method. Determining the most profitable distribution pattern for transporting products from factories to markets, and determining the best way to assign a number of objects to a number of other objects are other major problems handled in this course. The student will cover correlation and regression, time series analysis, breakeven analysis, linear programming, deferential calculus and network analysis.




This course is designed to foster entrepreneurial and innovation skills students, to enable you have a career managing innovation in existing firms and to found new ventures.



Course Description: this course deals with the scientific foundation of agricultural microbiology and brief history of microbiology classification microbes. It also covers techniques and methods used in study of micro organisms. The course also provides detailed study of various groups of microorganisms with the respect of structure and physiology.  At end, this course will emphasize microorganism in the soil, food, dairy, water, plant pathogens and health areas. 



It is designed to learners for acquiring basic knowledge of plant health in general. In particular, the course addresses concepts in relation of Insects and Pathogenic both plants and animals and their control.



In earlier times dairy was supposed to a human consumption only but later they improved and smaller industries to process the milk meat and other by products which they extracted or derived from the animals. The aim is to produce high quality milk which enough whole the world. 



Course Descriptions: This course will focus on writing strategies. Emphasis will be on development of sentence structure, sentence variety, and paragraph structure to essay level. The sentence level writing includes writing accurate sentences i.e. avoiding fragments, run-on sentences, agreement faults, faulty parallelism, dangling construction, etc. the paragraph level writing emphasizes the basics of paragraph writing i.e. coherence, unity, completeness, topic sentences; statement of main idea, writing supports, appropriate emphasis, logical arrangement and development of ideas such as cause and effect, comparison and contrast, description, definition, exemplification, classification, sequencing events, etc. This paragraph level writing also includes the drafting, revision, and editing processes of writing. Students will be introduced to the techniques of composing longer texts or essay writing.


Course Description:  this course introduces to students the study of zoology at the cellular organism, and function levels. It provides to students for the introduction of areas of systematic evaluation, reproduction, development, animal diversity and ecology.


Course Description: this course deals with the plant cells, tissues, structure, anatomy and function of plant organs. Students will be introduced plant energy nutrition, transportation, Plant classification and ecology.


Course Description: Sociology and Anthropology deals with basic understanding of the subject matter and the techniques used to study in the contemporary era for human social life patterns. In addition, it provides students’ general understanding of society’s culture, tradition, and its living pattern. Finally, the main objective of the course is to familiarize agriculture students with the fundamental elements of sociological and anthropological perspective regarding human social life.


Course Description: this course provides the systematic account of organic compounds. It introduces saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with detailed explanation about their physical and chemical properties. This course also deals with their methods of preparation and chemical reactions. Finally, students will be assigned to conduct practical experiments at end of the course.


Course Description: Physical basis of heredity, Mendelian genetic Mutation and chromosomal aberration and their importance in livestock improvement. Extra chromosomal inheritance. Genetic principles of development, evolution and behavior. Gene regulation at molecular level- gene structure, regulation, replication, protein synthesis and mutation. Genetic engineering as applied to animal. Major traits in farm animals-qualitative, quantitative and threshold traits. Variation of economic traits and measurement of variation. Genetics and environmental interaction. Principles of population genetics, gene frequency, Hardy-Weinberg law and factors affecting gene frequency. Genetic parameters: heritability, repeatability and correlation among traits. Principles and methods of selection: selection based on records of individuals, progeny, pedigree, collateral relatives and combination of records. Mating systems-principles, types and effects of inbreeding and out-breeding in farm animals. Recording and standardization of records Selection and breeding for adaptive traits like heat tolerance and disease resistance. Conservation of farm animal resources


Course Description: The course will focus on how animals interact in a given habitat and the role of behavior in their interaction. The scope and importance of animal behavior, Innate versus learned behavior; environmental influence, impact of domestication on behavior; physiological basis of behavior, motivation, development, function and evolution of behavior will be discussed. Ingestive & Eliminative behavior, Agonistic & Sexual behavior, Care giving & care seeking behavior, communication of behavior; role of hormones and pheromones; selection for behavioral characteristics; age and living space in relation to behavior; social organization and variations among social groups, comparison between behavior of wild and domestic animals; rights of animals (ethical issues of animals); unnecessary beating/torturing animals; rest required during peak heat hours; protection from severe cold/heat; humane slaughter; adequate housing space, intensification and animal production; unethical animal fight, standard of critiques and the problem will be point of discussion.


Course Description: This is an integrated skills development course, covering reading, listening, speaking, writing, and just grammar and vocabulary. Reading involves reading for gist, intensive reading, scanning, critical reading, and note-making. Listening incorporates listening for gist, listening for details, discriminating major and minor ideas, taking notes, and identifying features of active listening. Speaking activities include tasks such as introducing oneself and others, giving advice, debating, group work, oral reports, etc. writing activities focus on writing personal description, summary writing, describing charts, and tables..


Course Description:  this course covers animal farm husbandry systems including routine management, record keeping and marketing strategies. It also emphasizes environmental factors and diseases that affect animal productivity.


Course description: This course will be studied to the students the soil properties, processes and relationships to land use, plant growth, and environmental quality. Students are engaged how soil and water interacted across scale, fundamental process of water flow and chemical transport. The course also covers Soil Ecology: soil organisms include interactions between organisms, their processes and metabolism with major focus on micro-organisms.


Course Description: this is an introductory course designed to help students conceptualize the nature of human behavior and the implication of it. The implication of psychological facts and principles in different areas of psychology for understanding, describing, explaining, predicting and controlling human behavior are discussed.


COURSE DESCRIPTION: the course will cover fundamental ecology, considering earth as a integrated dynamic system. Topics will be learned to the students include co-evalution of the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere and oceans: photosynthesis and respiration  students will be introduced the flow of energy and materials through ecosystem: regulation of the distribution and abundance of organisms, structure and function of ecosystems including evolution  and natural selection. The learners are introduced trophic dynamics, models of population growth, competition, mutualism and predation


Course description: The course structure includes: management as applied to farming; nature of farm management science, objectives and its importance; farm management problems in Somaliland conditions; Decision-making process of a farmer as a farm manager, production relationships in farming: factor-product relationships, factor-factor relationships, product-product relationships. Economic principles applied to farm management, Production and costs; farm planning and budgeting, farm accounts and accounting analysis: record keeping (cash flows, work planning and profit and loss statement); management of important farm resources, risk management and business thinking.


Course Description: This course is designed to give students basic anatomy and physiology knowledge on animals with particular emphasis on domestic animals (the cow, sheep, & camel). Terminology is an important part of the course. Systematical body structure and organs study of farm animals with comparative anatomical study of mammals and other animals will be discussed. Cells and tissues will be described as the fundamental structural and functional units of body organization. Important species differences are described. Physiological study of the systemic body functions and regulation of coordinated body organs function under the physiological changes in domestic animal will be dealt.

Under practical session, demonstration of the structure, locations and relationships of organs & systems of the body using various models will be performed. Laboratory examination of cells and tissues under a microscope will be presented. The course also provides practical experience in discovering principles and structures associated with the anatomy and physiology of animals. 


Course Description: this course is about understanding food quality preservation techniques and also deals with diet constitute mainly nutritional elements that are essential to human body. It also addresses the various types of food and nutritional compounds that the human utilizes. The course emphasizes food preservation methods and pathogenic agents deteriorating food shelf life. In addition, diseases resulted from contaminated food and finally introduce the processing, packaging techniques of food.


Course Description: The course is about to introduce the evolution of computer science field with particular emphasis on Computer systems and applications. At the end, the course thoroughly provides required skills in utilizing office applications such as Spreadsheet, Word processing, Power point etc.


 Course description: Introduction, biology and biodiversity of bee, bee keeping in Somalia, social life, principles and practices of bee culture, bee breeding and rearing, bees management, hive products, process of honey extraction and marketing, modern techniques in honey production, disease and pests of bees. The construction of bee hives.

Practical: Apiary layout and site selection, identification of members of a bee colony, demonstrating the use of beekeepers equipment, differences between traditional transitional and modern hives, inspection of beehive, measurement of parts of modern beehive, wax rendering, comb foundation printing techniques, method of capturing a swarm of bees, identification of common diseases in beehive, techniques of honey extraction, packing and hygienic methods of handling extracted honey, visit to a private beekeeper.


Description: The course is about the study of soil development, soil physical properties and water management. Soil and water Conservation course introduces water harvesting approaches and techniques to control water run-off.  It also provides when and where soil degradation can occur in a given time and place.  With this knowledge, the course empowers students to deeply understand biological, agronomical and physical management practices.


Course Description: this course deals with the scientific foundation of agricultural microbiology and brief history of microbiology classification microbes. It also covers techniques and methods used in study of micro organisms. The course also provides detailed study of various groups of microorganisms with the respect of structure and physiology.  At end, this course will emphasize microorganism in the soil, food, dairy, water, plant pathogens and health areas. 


Course Description: this course is designed to provide students better understanding key of agricultural marketing issues and concerns. Students will be introduced the analytical skills used to evaluate different marketing strategies. This course also deals with market structure behavior and performance. Market and market game theory also provided. Students will be able to understand the functions performed and appropriate knowledge on complexities of agricultural marketing system. In short, the course applies the basic economic concepts and analytical tools to understand market forces that affect product price.



Course Description: it is designed to learners for acquiring basic knowledge of plant health in general. In particular, the course addresses concepts in relation to causal agents of plant diseases and the factors contributing to it. It also offers greater understanding regarding pathogenic agents’ development and the stages it gets through. In short, the course focuses on disease management and control procedures.


Course Description: It provides agricultural students with basic knowledge and understanding of the normal chemical and metabolic processes of the body and how it affected by certain disorders; knowledge of the molecular basis of certain types of diseases, and the biochemical basis of drug actions and effects of toxins. The course also provides basic elements of chemical food composition and molecular constituents of enzymes. And finally, the course briefly explains chemical composition of living organisms.


Course Description:

Forage and pasture production concern how to cultivate nutritive crop which is not found local pasture its indigenous environment.

 For the sake of increasing the quality and quantity of livestock everybody or every nation must cultivate nutritive crops his livestock to produce meat, milk and draught power,

As we know the native couldn’t endow every soil country whole nutritive plant of livestock so we should fill this gaps, and to grow suitable crops wheatear legumes or grasses. 


  • Course Description: Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) is an approach used by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other agencies involved in international development the approach aims to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of rural people in the planning and management of development projects and programmers’.
  • It is a method by which teams quickly and systematically collects information for general analysis of specific development through:
    • Need assessment
    • Feasibility study
    • Identifying, prioritizing and planning community based projects
    • Projects or programs monitoring and evaluation


Course Description: Classification and characterization of feeds and nutrients, the structure and digestive system of different farm animals, the enzymes of digestive system, the process of nutrient digestion, transport and absorption in different species of farm animals, metabolism of nutrients, the interrelationship between metabolisms of nutrients, Special feature of nutrient metabolism in ruminants. Metabolic disorder in ruminants,  NCR nomenclature and general characteristic of common feedstuffs (roughage, protein, energy, feed additives, non-conventional feedstuffs). Feed evaluation-chemical composition, digestibility, voluntary feed Intake, energy value, and protein value of feeds. Feeding standard-nutrient requirement of farm animals, Ration formulation, type of feeding and management practices. Preparation and storage of feedstuffs


Course description:  Brief classification of phytophathogenic genera of fungi, the aim of this course is understanding diseases which occurs in Tropical areas.


Course Description:  this course provides to students the concept, philosophy, principles, context and historical evolution of agricultural extension as a medium of agricultural and rural development. Students will learn the scope, methods and procedures of comparative agricultural extension systems and approaches. The course is applied appropriate agricultural extension systems to various extension audiences. This course implements appropriate agro-extension technology, content and students will be introduced communication and extension management tools. Finally, students will be explained building linkage between farmers,, researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders within the extension system.



Course Description: This course intends to provide students with the various irrigation techniques and modern practices in water draining. It also deeply addresses evopo-transpiration occurrences and their effect in plant development. Irrigation and Drainage course deals with the negative impact of water on plant germination and the significance of water supply routes to farm production. Finally, it enables students to identify symptoms of water lodging and its control.


Course Description: This course deals with the study of animal meat production processes and animal breeding. In particular, the animals that the course covers both in meat production and animal breeding are cattle, camel, goat and sheep. It also covers the nutrition levels that each type holds to human being and the factors that negatively affect their production processing. In addition, students will be given how to improve animal housing system, fattening and general animal farm husbandry practices. At end, students will be able to administer slaughter houses, and animal fattening centers.


COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course  of poultry industry  will be discussed  major poultry breeds  and students will be introduced digestive and reproductive tracks in the other hand, the course cover incubation and hatching, production layers, broilers and feeding  and housing systems . Students will be engaged pest and disease management systems and marketing of poultry products.


Course Description:  this course is about the study of weeds and their control. Students will be introduced principles regarding weed classification, biology, herbicides chemistry and plant ecology. It also covers integrated management practices which eliminate and control weeds in grain crops, legumes, vegetables, fruits, pasture and other crop ecologies. At end, this course deals with herbicides formulation and safe herbicides use.


Course Description: this course is designed for students to help understand the basic classifications of insects and their morphological cycle. It also deals with studying physiology of insects and their effects on plant production. In short, the course provides insect nomenclatures, their taxonomy and the ways it could be controlled for their negative impact on crop production.


Course Description: This course introduces students to the definition of statistics and the importance of statistics in agriculture. The course will then equip the students with basic know-how of descriptive statistics. Vital statistics and agricultural service statistics will also be dealt with thoroughly. Subsequently probability theory and sampling theory will be addressed. Finally, the student will be introduced to basic techniques of statistical inference vs. statistical estimation and hypothesis testing.


Course Description: The course deals with the health aspects of animal Production with regard to animal diseases and their prevention and control. It also describes some epidemiological concepts on the occurrence and distribution of the disease and factors incriminated for their occurrence. It concerns the classification of animal diseases and their general effect on the production and productivity. It gives emphasis to important infectious diseases in Somaliland through systematic description of their etiology, mode of transmission, occurrence, pathogenesis, signs, pathological finding, diagnosis, treatment and finally prevention and control of those diseases.


Course Description: this course is intended to equip students with a basic working knowledge of agricultural research methods. It also offers the trainee an acquaintance with research proposal writing, critical appraisal of scientific paper and application of common statistical packages.


Course Description: this course deals with the application of mechanical, physical, biological and electronic principles that solved the real life problems in crop/fruit/vegetable production processes. Practically, students will involve dynamics of seeding, transplanting, soil seed, seedling, mowing, threshing and their interaction with the machine.


Course Description: This course intends to provide students with the various irrigation techniques and modern practices in water draining. It also deeply addresses evo-transpiration occurrences and their effect in plant development. Irrigation and Drainage course deals with the negative impact of water on plant germination and the significance of water supply routes to farm production. Finally, it enables students to identify symptoms of water lodging and its control.


Course description: The course will focus on how to manage and conserve our natural resources with particular emphasis on wildlife. Reasons for conserving our resources, processes of wildlife management, selection of sites to establish protected areas and management will be discussed. The importance of data-base for wildlife management will be explained. Advantage of community integrated wildlife conservation and management will be dealt giving emphasis in our country with attempts and achievements so far done including limitations and opportunities.

Field trip will be arranged to observe and identify some important wild mammals and birds in some areas in our country. Population census such as road count using vehicles will be practiced. Itinerary writing will be part of the journey. Wildlife film and slide show concerning wildlife population and habitat management techniques will be arranged.


Course Description: The course focuses on understanding the importance of fisheries, aquaculture, limnology and ichthyology. It deals with unique features, external & internal structures of fishes, taxonomy & distribution of fishes in Somaliland providing attention for seas, fresh water ecosystem which is the lakes and barkets. The main physical, chemical and biological factors affecting fish production in seas and inland water, community structure and dynamics in aquatic environments including fish biology such as feeding, growth, major diseases of fish & their treatments will be point of discussion. Fish culturing (aquaculture), harvesting, fishing method, transportation and preservation will be also described.

Field and laboratory experiments will be designed to understand the aquatic ecosystem with fish identification, physic-chemical analysis, investigation of internal & external structures, and observation of fish preservation and transportation methods.